Exercises: shoulders

The shoulder exercises in this section target the deltoid muscle. The three parts of this muscle generate force, while the rotator cuff provides dynamic stability and allows movement around the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint). Strong, stable arms and shoulders are good for many sports. The arm exercises focus on the muscles that flex the elbow – biceps, brachii, brachialis and brachioradialis – and on the triceps brachii, which extends the elbow.

Because the shoulder and arm muscles also work during exercises for other muscle groups, you should allow time for rest and recovery between workouts to avoid fatigue and overload. The posterior deltoid and rotator cuff are extra sensitive, so pay sufficient attention to this.

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The upright row is an excellent exercise to get stronger shoulders. This exercise targets the lateral deltoid.

The shrug targets the back of the shoulders and the upper part of the back. The shrug is good for increasing strength in movements such as carrying, lifting and dragging.

The lateral raise focuses specifically on the lateral aspect of the shoulder muscles. The exercise is suitable for beginners and more advanced users.

The front raise is good for strengthening the front part of the shoulder. The abdominal muscles and lower back muscles also have to work hard, so get a good secondary workout.

The shoulder press is often used in a complete program for intermediate and advanced strength athletes.